What is Cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is any technology, measure, or practice taken to protect your websites and data in the digital world. It protects your systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks, also known as cyberattacks. These cyberattacks usually aim to access, change, or destroy sensitive information from your servers. They can also aim to extort money from users or interrupt normal business processes. Cybersecurity aims to protect businesses and users from such attacks.

Why is Cybersecurity Important?

Cybersecurity plays an important role in our everyday lives, as an increasing number of users, devices, and programs are accessing the World Wide Web. Therefore, the amount of sensitive or confidential data left behind also rises each day. With this, the importance of cybersecurity grows as there is more to protect against cyberattacks.

What Are Common Cybersecurity Categories?

Some common cybersecurity categories are application security, cloud security, critical infrastructure security, data security, IoT (Internet of Things) security, and mobile security.

  • Application security(Appsec)

    protects applications that run on-premises and in the cloud. It prevents unauthorized access to and the use of applications and its related data. It also prevents flaws or vulnerabilities in the application design, preventing hackers from infiltrating your network.

  • Cloud security

    protects an organization's cloud-based services and assets from cyberattacks. These services include applications, data, storage, virtual services, development tools, and cloud infrastructure.

  • Critical infrastructure security

    safeguards the computer systems, applications, networks, data, and digital assets fundamentally important for society's national security, economic health, and public safety.

  • Data security

    Protects your data (digital information) from unauthorized access, corruption, or theft. It provides cybersecurity solutions like data encryption, data masking, hashing, key access management, and sensitive file redaction.

  • Endpoint security

    protects your endpoints, such as servers, desktops, laptops, and mobile phones. These endpoints also remain the primary entry points for cyberattacks.

  • IoT security

    secures internet-connected devices and ensures they do not threaten the network. Internet-connected devices are network security cameras, smart refrigerators, and WiFi-capable automobiles.

  • Mobile security

    contains several disciplines and technologies specific to smartphones and mobile phones. Some are mobile application management (MAM) and enterprise mobility management (EMM).

What Are The Benefits of Cybersecurity?

The benefits of cybersecurity include:

  • Protection of sensitive data:

    During a cybersecurity threat, sensitive data such as customer information, financial records and trade secrets can be stolen. Cybersecurity protects your data and ensures that such information is not stolen.

  • Reduced risk of data breaches:

    Cybersecurity ensures a much lower risk of cyberattacks, which also means a reduced risk of data breaches.

  • Enhanced detection and response to attacks:

    Cybersecurity safeguards your data. This also means that the security systems have certain detection processes in place to detect attacks as they come and react to them accordingly.

  • Greater piece of mind:

    Cybersecurity provides a sense of assurance knowing that your data and systems are protected against cyberattacks. Assistance in remote working: Having your company's sensitive data sent out across the globe through different IoT, Wi-Fi, and personal devices can be unsettling. But as remote working is becoming more of a thing nowadays, it's important to safeguard your sensitive data while enabling remote working for your employees.

  • Enhanced productivity:

    Because cyberattacks cause fewer interruptions, you can concentrate on the important things to get done.

  • Protection of intellectual property:

    Intellectual property is one of your company's most valuable assets. It helps shield businesses and individuals against cyberattacks.

  • Ensured regulation compliance:

    As there are more and more data security regulations being set in place, companies need to make sure they are not hit with penalties. Cybersecurity helps ensure compliance with set regulations so you don't have to worry about it.

  • Less costs:

    Because cybersecurity protects your data, you don't have to put as much money into data breaches.

  • Minimized financial losses:

    Cybersecurity takes certain steps to safeguard your financial data (e.g. credit card numbers, bank accounts).

  • Protected critical infrastructure:

    Damage to the critical infrastructure can cause detrimental damage to the global economies and the public. By securing the critical infrastructure, you are safeguarding yourself against fatal cyberattacks.

  • Enhanced business reputation:

    Using cybersecurity ensures that sensitive data is safe. This also means that your company will have a better reputation because customers will more likely trust you with their data.

What Are the Types of Cybersecurity Threats?

Some of the most common cybersecurity threats are malware, phishing, social engineering, zero-day, denial-of-service (DoS), distributed denial-of-service (DDoS). They will be explained in the following part:


Malware attacks are malicious software that infects computers and devices. After infecting the electronic device, it can steal sensitive information (such as personal, financial, or business), hijack devices, and launch attacks. There are different types of malware attacks; some of the most common ones are:

  • Viruses:

    Viruses are one of the most difficult types of malware to remove. The reasoning behind it is that once it is executed on a device, it can replicate itself by modifying other programs and inserting its malicious code into them on its own.

  • Worms:

    A worm self-replicates without the end user's involvement. As it spreads, it can infect entire networks by quickly moving from one device to another.

  • Trojan horses:

    Trojan malware is one of the most difficult types to detect. It disguises itself as a legitimate program to get the users' trust. But in reality, the programs contain malicious code and instructions, and once the user executes it, they can operate under the radar. The most common use is to get other types of malware into the system.

  • Ransomware:

    Ransomware infects machines, encrypts files, and holds the needed decryption key as ransom until the victim pays up. These kinds of attacks are becoming more frequent; most commonly, they target enterprises and government entities.


Phishing attacks involve tricking the user into clicking on malicious links or attachments by appearing to come from a legitimate and reputable source. These kinds of cybersecurity threats can steal sensitive information, such as login or financial data, or install malware on the victim's device. Some Phishing techniques are email phishing, spear phishing, whaling, smishing, vishing, and angler phishing. Phishing is considered the most common type of social engineering.

Social Engineering

Social engineering is a broad term used for various malicious activities accomplished through human interactions. Cyber attackers use a set of tactics to manipulate, influence, or deceive a user into giving away sensitive information, perform ill-advised actions to release personal and financial information, or even hand over control over a system. Some examples of social engineering are phishing, vishing, smishing, CEO (executive) fraud, bating, and pretexting.

Zero-day Attacks

A zero-day attack is an attack that takes place before developers have time to address it. The reason that hackers are able to do that is because it is a recently discovered vulnerability in the system. Hackers take advantage of that discovery and immediately launch an attack, exploiting the flaw. So, the developers have "zero-days" to fix the mistake. There are three different types of zero-day attacks. There is the zero-day vulnerability, zero-day exploit, and the zero-day attack.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks

Denial-of-service attacks prevent users from accessing a system or service by shutting it down. To prevent access, the system can be flooded with traffic or requests or damaged, so it can no longer function properly. Most commonly targeted are high-profile organizations like banking, commerce, and media companies. This cybersecurity threat does not necessarily result in stolen information or other assets, but it will cost the company much money to rebuild or restart a system or service again.

Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) Attacks

A distributed denial-of-service attack aims to disrupt the normal traffic of a specific server, service, or network by inundating the target or its surrounding infrastructure with a flood of internet traffic. To achieve this goal, multiple systems (e.g., computers) are used to execute a large-scale, coordinated attack, making them highly effective.

Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) Attacks

Man-in-the-middle attacks intercept communications between two entities by eavesdropping on a network connection or redirecting traffic to a malicious server. Some types of MitM attacks are rogue access points, ARP spoofing, mDNS spoofing, and DNS spoofing. MitM attackers also use different techniques, such as sniffing, packet injection, session hijacking, and SSL stripping.

Supply Chain Attacks

A supply chain attack is carried out against trusted third-party vendors to gain unauthorized access to the targeted organization's systems or data. This third-party vendor often offers valuable services or software to the supply chain. Most commonly, malicious code is fed to the software of a cybersecurity vendor and can then be executed onto end-user devices via a routine software update. Some common supply chain attack types are browser-based, software, open-source, and JavaScript attacks.

Insider Threats

An insider threat is a cybersecurity threat within an organization. An insider will use their authorized access (deliberately or not) to detrimentally harm a department's mission, resources, personnel, facilities, information, equipment, network, or systems. There are different types of insider threats, such as violence, espionage, sabotage, theft, and cyber acts.


To conclude, cybersecurity includes a spectrum of different technologies, practices, and measures dedicated to safeguarding digital assets (such as systems, networks, and data) against a multitude of cybersecurity threats. There are various cybersecurity solutions to protect your sensitive data, like application security, cloud security, critical infrastructure security, data security, IoT security, and mobile security. There are quite a few benefits to robust cybersecurity, ranging from protecting sensitive data to compliance with regulations and a decreased risk of data breaches. Nevertheless, the threat landscape in cybersecurity is diverse and ever-evolving. There are common threats such as malware attacks, phishing, social engineering, zero-day attacks, DoS and DDoS attacks, and many more. As some of these threats are more dangerous than others to defend, it is important to stay vigilant, install robust security measures, and implement proactive strategies to mitigate risks.

FAQs Is cybersecurity a good career?

Yes, definitely. Besides the continuously growing need for cybersecurity, a career as a cybersecurity analyst is also highly rewarding financially. A cybersecurity analyst is one of the most promising and well-paid careers available today.

Is it hard to study cyber security?

Cybersecurity training can be challenging, although it doesn't have to be that way for everyone. Some may find it easier than others. However, you should definitely have a passion for technology as it will make it easier to get through your studies.

Can cybersecurity jobs be remote?

Yes, they can. As it requires you to sit in front of a computer, you can take it anywhere.

What is the key definition of cybersecurity?

Cybersecurity is any technology, measure, or practice to protect your website and data from malicious cyberattacks.